Written by safinah   
Saturday, 22 December 2018 23:00






Asghar Hadavi

Associate professor, Shahed University

Roshan Dehghani

Abstract: Razegh (daily bread, sustenance) is one of the most significant concerns of human beings since their creation which includes any kind of things given by God. How people gain this daily bread and sustenance can have effects on the various aspects of personal life and social life of people.

Concerns of getting Halal (in an approved way) rezgh in personal life embraces these factors: not following our lust, being grateful, increasing doing good deeds, improving our self-dignity, peace and welfare,being loyal religious-wise and polishing our soul. And in social life includes having good children, observing rights of others, being just, avoiding evil actions, reaching public peace and welfare, trying to be the best of all nations, and being a trustee in society. In the present article, holy verses of Quran and traditions related to this topic have been studied to map the ways of making a halal living which has a direct impact on answering the above mentioned concerns.

Key words: Rezgh, verses, traditions, educational effect, personal aspect, social aspect

1. Introduction

Daily bread (sustenance), similar to many other issues and
affairs of human being’s life is determined by the knowledge and bounty of God, and this has been frequently mentioned in verses of Quran and traditions: for example in Quran this word and its derivations have been mentioned 123 times; therefore it can be inferred that how important it is in the salvation of people financial-wise and spiritual-wise.

From Islamic teachings, daily bread is effective on actions and behavior of human being. Imam Ali (p. b. u. h) said:

“Oh Komayl! Truly tongue is rooted from heart and is reveals whatever is in heart. The strength of heart is on food. So be aware what the intakes of your heart and body are.”

A body and soul are not separable and body can affect soul.

Whatever human being does in this world has effects and different types of Rezgh can affect soul as can affect body. Health of soul owes to the correct use of property and Halal food which has significant role in training human being. Halal daily bread and having this belief that God has determined our daily bread and being satisfied with it have some effects on personal life of each person called personal aspects of rezgh. The effect of rezgh on social behavior is classified as the educational effects of social aspect. Therefore the manner of an individual regarding rezgh indirectly can affect society.

In this study, Quranic verses and shia traditions regarding this topic have been studied. While doing this research, Biharul Anwār and Kanzul Ummal have also been studied in this regard.
Here, first a belief look at the meaning of rezgh and training have been offered.

Second a study over the effects of Halal rezgh on training individuals personal- wise and social-wise has been carried out.

1. Conceptual Studying of variables of this research

1. 1 Rezgh is an Arabic word which is defined by linguists like this:

Rezgh means whatever which is used. According to some others rezgh means
giving time but it can be used in other cases too. Therefore rezgh generally means grants of God.

In contemporary dictionaries this word has been used in various usages meaning food, daily bread, essentialities of life and whatever people can use.

As an expression it is the name of whatever God sends towards alive ones to eat, including halal and haram.
Or rezgh is whatever allocated to creatures, from food to clothes.

In summary, rezgh is whatever given by God, financial or materialistic one; food or clothes or other givings. If people know rezgh limited to materialistic affairs, especially food, it is because of its more frequent usage.

1. 2. Upbringing

There are various definitions for this term “upbringing”. Upbringing is growing someone up and activating his/her inborn passive talents. Talent here is all features which can be imagine and are given to each creature at the time of his/her birth. But activating and fulfilling a part of or whole of them depend on finding a suitable opportunity. Upbringing is a continuous and organized process which its aim is multi-aspect growth for people in order to acquire and comprehend teachings related to humanity and to learn norms which are accepted by society and to flourish their talents. In other words, upbringing means removing obstacles and preparing prerequisites to make human being’s talents flourished.

1. 2. 1. The goals of upbringing

The major goal of educating and upbringing is to be purified through refinement of soul and balancing instincts and the ultimate goal is to elevate soul of human beings to reach salvation. And there is no doubt that Bethat of the holy Prophet of Islam was to this end. The words of holy Prophet, “I have been appointed as a prophet to improve the level of ethics.” is the best evident of this claim.

Some other goals of upbringing include piety, Hikmah, breeding the spirit of justice, perfection, cultivating social spirit which in turn includes cooperation and friendship with other nations and companionship with good people. In addition, breeding intellectual power and moral character are of other goals. And specifically worshipping God which is mentioned as the main aim of upbringing.

The ultimate goal is elevating to the position of God’s satisfaction. To reach this, knowing the value of working and making a living and strengthening the spirit of fighting with economical exploitation or jobs which are against the benefit of society are of essentialities. Some believed discussions on upbringing root in theological beliefs , which are dealing with individual and social style of life, which purify human beings from sins and lead their talents to salvation. Therefore, any effect of rezgh which gets us closer to the satisfaction of God and ultimate goal can be regarded as issues under the title of upbringing.

2. The educational effects of rezgh

In the present study, educational effects of rezgh refer to the role which halal rezgh can make if it is accompanied by satisfaction. As we have seen in some verses like Taha, 81, though rezgh of Bani Israil tribe was Halal but they were not satisfied with the amount of their predetermined rezgh and they objected. Halal rezgh has some influences which can be seen in Islamic teachings. The effect of rezgh can be studied from two aspects:

1. 2. The educational effect of rezgh personal-wise

As each action has its own effect which starts from inside of a person and then appears outside, in the following we go over some effects like not following carnal desires, strengthening the spirit of being grateful, encouragement in doing good deeds, improving self-esteem, peace and wellbeing, enriching faithfulness and polishing dirt of soul which are the results of halal rezgh.

1. 2. 1. Refusing satanic temptation or carnal desires

The most important effect of gaining halal rezgh which has great impact on the will power of human beings and their interest to acquire ethical values, is to refuse satanic temptations and carnal desires.

In some verses of Quran, the presence of Satan besides us at the time of eating is mentioned like Baghare 168. The word اکل in this verse originally means food and expressionally means the materialistic benefit of vast rezgh of the world. The word اکل literally means chewing and swallowing, but generally refers to all kinds of financial benefit, in fact, the reason of all financial benefits is to eat, as life is based on eating. Halal rezgh is the cause of being powerful in doing worships and طیب is considered as halal by some and these two words حلال و طیب” besides each other want to add emphasis on this meaning.

Therefore the meaning of the verse is this: “God orders to eat hilal food” and in its following warns people of not following satanic temptations or carnal desires; this can be interpreted that following Satan can lead to following hiram; in fact, following Satan or each person or group that stops people from the main road can be regarded as satanic temptation and a sign of Satan. While the prerequisite of halal salary is to keep far from Satan and these two have mutual and consecutive effect on each other.

2. 1. 2. cultivating the spirit of thanking and being grateful

Rezgh is the relation of God with His servants; each receiver of blessing should be grateful to his bless-giver. Some of these verses are in a way that when the word رزق is mentioned, in the rest of the verse, God orders people to be grateful; based on this, we can infer that halal rezgh boosts the spirit of being grateful. In the verse,

وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ أَنْتُمْ قَلِيلٌ مُسْتَضْعَفُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ تَخَافُونَ أَنْ يَتَخَطَّفَكُمُ النَّاسُ فَآوَاكُمْ وَأَيَّدَكُمْ بِنَصْرِهِ وَرَزَقَكُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

“And remember how He gave you shelter when you were few in number and considered weak in the land, ever fearing that the people would snatch you away; but He gave you refuge and supported you with His victory and provided you with goodness, so that you might give thanks. ”(8:26)

Or other verses with the same content like

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُلُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِلَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

“Believers, eat of the good with which We have provided you and give thanks to Allah, if you really worship Him. ” (2:172)

فَكُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاشْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

“Eat of the lawful and good things with which Allah has provided you and be thankful for the favors of Allah if it is He you worship. ” (16:114)

إِنَّمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْثَانًا وَتَخْلُقُونَ إِفْكًا إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَا يَمْلِكُونَ لَكُمْ رِزْقًا فَابْتَغُوا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الرِّزْقَ وَاعْبُدُوهُ وَاشْكُرُوا لَهُ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

“You only worship, other than Allah, idols and invent falsehoods. Those whom you worship, other than Allah, have no power to give you provision. Therefore seek the provision of Allah, and worship Him. Give thanks to Him, to Him you shall return. '” (29:17)

لَقَدْ كَانَ لِسَبَإٍ فِي مَسْكَنِهِمْ آيَةٌ جَنَّتَانِ عَنْ يَمِينٍ وَشِمَالٍ كُلُوا مِنْ رِزْقِ رَبِّكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لَهُ بَلْدَةٌ طَيِّبَةٌ وَرَبٌّ غَفُورٌ

“For Sheba there was indeed a sign. In their dwelling place there were two gardens, on the right and left side. (We said): 'Eat of your Lord's provisions and give thanks to Him, a good land, and a Lord who is the Forgiving. '”(34:15)

رَبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنْتُ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِنْدَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُمْ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْكُرُونَ

“'Our Lord, I have settled some of my offspring in a barren valley near Your Holy House; our Lord, in order that they establish the prayer. Make the hearts of people yearn towards them, and provide them with fruits, in order that they are thankful. ” (14:37)

It can realized that boosting the spirit of being grateful which is derived from understanding blessings of God, can not only affect the spirit of an individual but also can affect the relationship among members of a family. Because such an spirit, first, is created inside a person in the relationship between him and God and then reflects outside. The one who is enjoying hilal rezgh, in the next step, will be thankful of all who pave the way for him to make hilal money; this thankfulness by words and in action can cherish respect and kindness among family members and in return among members of each community.

2. 1. 3. Creation and boosting good deeds

One of the issues which occupies broad domain of educational concerns is the effect of environmental variables on character. One of these variables can be making hilal money which boosts good deeds. In some verses, this point has been mentioned,

يَا أَيُّهَا الرُّسُلُ كُلُوا مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَاعْمَلُوا صَالِحًا إِنِّي بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌ

“Messengers! Eat of that which is good and do good deeds; I have knowledge of the things you do. ” (23:51)

طیب as a religious terminology means something hilal and pure. As we have mentioned earlier, how to make our living not only is effective on body but also is effective on soul and characteristics. As good deeds can cause hilal rezgh, the way of making money is effective on the actions of a person. Therefore, halal rezgh can make human being interested in doing good deeds. In the opposite, Haram food will fade freshness while pray and draws mankind towards sins and immorality.

2. 1. 4. Boosting the spirit of self-dignity

Another achievement of halal rezgh is to boost the spirit of self-esteem. A person who has self-esteem will not spend his time doing actions causing humiliation for him and does not let himself be jealous of others which will undermine his honor and magnanimity. The more magnanimous, the less lust and greed; lust and greed are pests of training and perfection. As an example, in the verses which talk about limited and unlimited rezgh,

أَوَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

“Do they not know that Allah outspreads and withholds His provision to whosoever He will? Surely, there are signs in this for a believing nation” (39:52).

This verse expresses that those who have belief in “God being rezgh giver”, not only do not feel sad or greedy when face limitation or expansion of rezgh but also they believe rezgh will not be increased or decreased by being greedy; as in fact, rezgh is predetermined. But according to the above mentioned verse, limitation or expansion of rezgh is the cause of connection of people to God and to encourage people to comprehend God’s providence. And the result of halal rezgh can be some educational effects such as uplifting the level of thinking and understanding.

2. 1. 5. Creation of peace and welfare in life

Reaching real welfare and peace is one of the permanent requests of human being and being able to make money is one of the issues that can guaranty peace in the life of people as financial matter surrounds all aspects of human being’s life including economical, cultural and social aspect. welfare is related to the materialistic aspect of life and peace to spiritual aspect. And upbringing includes both physical and spiritual aspects, therefore, one of the educational effects of rezgh is to create welfare and peace for people. For welfare, there are various definitions, some define it as happiness, meeting needs, freedom, … . In traditions, financial prosperity by hahal rezgh is mentioned as an example of peace and welfare. Imam Sadiq said, “There are five things that if any one of them is absent in people’s life, people will always fill its empty place and will feel dissatisfaction and anxiety… the third of them is being financially rich… the fifth of them which includes all of these, is welfare and comfort. ” Studying verses and traditions show that people will reach welfare and peace when by halal rezgh (in both aspects) can meet their basic needs and decrease expenditure and also answer their spiritual needs which can create happy and fresh spirit.

Enjoying halal rezgh and blessings of God is one of the causes of happiness.

قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ

“Say: 'In the Bounty of Allah and His Mercy let them rejoice, it (the Koran) is better than that which they hoard.” (10:58)

Though some know فضل خدا to be the holy Prophet and رحمت of God to be Ali ibn Abitalib, but some other believed that فضل خدا is donation of God to His creatures all and the word رحمت is His special blessing to faithful people. As one meaning of blessing of God is rezgh, so in this case, one of the effects of halal rezgh is “ let them rejoice”. The sentence بفضل الله و برحمته is mentioned prior to فلیفرحوا to give specification which means happiness is only dependent on God’s Mercy and فا in فلیفرحوا refers to Mercy of God. Happiness not only influence spirit but also can influence body and one of the necessities of the life of human being is self-construction and community reform. Therefore, one of the effects of halal rezgh is happiness of soul and body which in turn causes peace and equilibrium.

2. 1. 6. Boosting and stabilizing religiosity

One of the effects of halal rezgh on upbringing of an individual is its effect on bringing a child who is steady fast in his religiosity. Imam Sadiq said, “ do not stop seeking halal rezgh, as it assists you in religiosity…”

According to what has been said, mankind has two aspects of soul and body. Therefore, Islamic teachings have special attention to the soul and financial state and says halal money effects on spiritual health and growth. Disregarding this fact will bring about detrimental consequences. It can be inferred from this tradition that those who are weak in their religiosity or are heedless to some religious rules should trace the reason back in their rezgh.

2. 1. 7. Polishing soul: streaming springs of Hikmah

Type of nutrition can be effective on heart, to be kind or cruel. Those who want their actions be accepted by God should remember one of the key points to it is halal rezgh. The famous example is what Prophet stated in this regard,

“Anyone who eats halal rezgh for forty days, God will illuminate his heart.” In the words of him, it is asserted that halal rezgh is the cause of brightness of soul. Therefore, an individual can make good or bad personality by food, it is also influential on his upbringing, and can fill his heart of light.

2. 2. The effect of rezgh from social perspective

The effect of haram in life is not limited to personal life but even can affect social life and mutual behavior of people towards each other. In the following, the most important effects of halal rezgh in social life are “having good children, observing others’ rights, equality, avoiding moral and social vices, reaching public peace and welfare, gaining superiority over other communities, being trusted by others”.

2. 2.1. Having good children

Children are given to us in trust and are God’s blessings; parents are responsible for their health, growth, education and upbringing. And one of the most significant ethics which should be observed in all periods of upbringing a child is halal rezgh and the verses and traditions are emphasizing on this. The verses recommend halal food and know it as the cause of good deeds. For example, Surah Momenon, verse 51, “ Oh Prophets! Eat from clean things and do good.” From the order of these two sentences, it can be inferred that halal food can pave the way for good deeds. To this end, the holy Prophet mentions one of the rights of children over their parents which is halal rezgh and states, “ the right of a child on his father is … to be fed by halal food only.” Therefore, it can be said that one of the duties of a father is to prepare halal rezgh that the result of this rezgh is upbringing good and faithful children. And in the school of Islam no service to children is better than good upbringing. For this, in religious teachings great emphasize has been given to halal rezgh which is preface to good deeds.

2. 2. 2. Observing people’s right

People have mutual rights towards each other. People should try to make money in a way that do not abuse or hurt others. Because each action who harms others or harms their security such as economical security, cultural or social security and cause immorality in society is haram and is considered as a sin. Rezgh (if it is accompanied by belief in God-being-rezgh-giver and satisfaction with whatever given) can be restrictive factor of crimes and can lead to intellectual and spiritual elevation. God says in some verses that, “eat and drink of what God gives you but do not be evil doers” ( Baqarah, 60) Though this verse is about halal rezgh, it points out to the fact that Bani Israel tribe was greedy. God, in fact, warns people if halal rezgh is accompanied by satisfaction, it can have educational effects which the effects are like avoiding vices or violation of others’ rights.

2. 2. 3. Equality

Islamic teachings found its teachings based on kindness and generosity. Sympathizing and accompanying others and engaging others in enjoying life and rezgh is called equality as it is a kind of cure for society. In Quran we read, “Who give food, for the love of Him to the needy, the orphan, and the captive” “"We only feed you for the sake of God and we do not want any reward or thanks from you.” These verses are about infallible imams who were always in the first line of devotion. Therefore, from these verses, we can understand that donating food is even one of the examples of rezgh that causes God’s satisfaction.

In traditions, equality and helping poor are advised.

2. 2. 4. Divine protection and staying away from moral and social vices

One of the other effects of halal rezgh is to be surrounded by the protection of God. God Almighty says in a Qudsi hadith,

“Oh Ahmad! Truly worship has 10 parts which 9 of them is to seek halal rezgh, so if your food is hilal, you will be under my protection…” This is what God told His Prophet but it is not only specific for Prophet. Therefore, halal rezgh can cause Divine protection which this protection can be internal protection against Satan and also its outside protection against external enemies which is the effect of rezgh in social aspect.

2. 2. 5. Welfare and peace

As we have said earlier, welfare is reached when one can meet his financial and materialistic needs; one of the goals of training is “leading mankind to meet his financial and materialistic needs.” This has been emphasized in Islamic teachings, as imam Sadiq said,

“Anyone who is not ashamed of making halal money, his burden is light, his difficulties turn into comfort and his family will live a comfortable life, …. ” This ease can be divided into four groups: decreasing expenditure, happiness and kindness of family members towards each other, avoiding profusion, and escaping poverty.

2. 2. 5. 1. Decreasing expenditure

The satisfaction resulted from Halal Rezgh is one of the causes of relief and health psychological-wise and social-wise. Therefore halal rezgh can be a reason for elevation and perfection of human beings. There are various traditions regarding this for example from imam Sadiq,

“Anyone who is satisfied with little money his expenditure will decrease.” According to traditions enjoying halal rezgh is a reason for peaceful co-existence, equilibrium and health. Those who are happy with whatever God has determined, will avoid being greedy or trying to gain money at any price. Therefore, they will get halal rezgh which brings peace of mind for them. family life

As we have said happiness which comes after halal rezgh is not only limited to personal aspect but it has a result for all members of a family : “Say: In the grace of Allah and in His mercy-- in that they should rejoice; it is better than that which they gather”(Yunes, 58) According to the verse, it can be inferred that rezgh results in growing positive characteristics in people and in the next level his personality cherishes kindness among family member. Avoidance of squandering

By studying verses and traditions regarding rezgh, it becomes clear that Islamic economical system does not aim merely at meeting basic needs of human beings and do not regard them as its utmost goal.

One of the most significant causes of success of a society is to observe equality and observes God’s rules. Squandering and unbalancing are hindrances in the way of growth and advancement of a nation. They can end up in destroying spiritual and financial capitals and wealth. God has donated uncountable blessings to human beings to benefit from them.

In using them there is a limitation and it is not right to be squander “Children of Adam, take your adornment at every place of prayer. Eat and drink, and do not waste. He does not love the wasteful.” ( Araaf, 31) Therefore one of the most important techniques in healthy economic from Islamic point of view is when all people are determined to make halal money and when officials are honest.

2. 2. 5. 4. escaping from poverty

Poverty is the ugly face of life which can present itself financially, spiritually, socially and economically but here we mean financial and economical poverty. In Islam fighting poverty continues until one can enjoy an equal life with other people of society.

As economical needs are very important, Islam gives special importance to it and counts various reasons for why we should eradicate poverty from society. From solutions to eradicate poverty we can mention working in order to make halal money and after that paying zakat khoms and other duties. As some say eradication of poverty is of the impact of halal rezgh, for example (donation) which God states in Quran,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْفِقُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا كَسَبْتُمْ وَمِمَّا أَخْرَجْنَا لَكُمْ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا تَيَمَّمُوا الْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنْفِقُونَ وَلَسْتُمْ بِآخِذِيهِ إِلَّا أَنْ تُغْمِضُوا فِيهِ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ

Believers, spend of the good you have earned and of that which We have brought out of the earth for you. And do not intend the bad of it for your spending; while you would never take it yourselves, except you closed an eye on it. Know that Allah is Rich, the Praised.

Making money through halal way is one of the factors in upbringing spirit of kindness in people and in return it will result in boosting the spirit of attendance and accountability among people.

2. 2. 6 Being superior to other nations

Educational teachings of Quran introduces halal rezgh as a factor in making a nation superior to others, “We gave to the Children of Israel the Book, judgment and prophethood. We provided them with good things and preferred them above the worlds (of their time).” ( Jasiyah, 16) it is because halal rezgh and being happy with it can result in observing people’s rights. When we put all these factors besides each other salvation prosperity and superiority for a nation will be formed.

2. 2. 7. Being trustworthy

One of the other result of halal rezgh is that people will rely upon you, as we know this was one of the individual and social characteristics of holy prophet.

Imam Ali said,

“To be honest will absorb rezgh and dishonesty will absorb poverty. Rezgh and honesty have mutual relationship.”

The one who is interested in halal rezgh, is not greedy, so people will trust him and like to work with him..


Thanks to the findings of this study we can say:

A sound life which is prepared by halal rezgh will put human being in the way of spiritual growth; regardless of general economical programs of a society, even the smallest plan can be effective on a society.

2. Halal rezgh is of constructing factors in human growth and its first effect will become apparent in the belief and behavior of people and then social effects will be revealed which in addition to his peace of mind can make God satisfied.


The holy Quran

1. Ibn Fares, Ahmad; Mo’jam Maqaiis al-Lugha; Qum: Maktab al-A’lam Al-Islami

2. Ibn Manzur, Muhammad ibn Mokrem; Lesan al-Arab; Beirut

3.Jorjani, Ali ibn Muhammad; Kitab al-Tarifat; Beirut

4. Johari, Ismail ibn Hemad; al-Sihah; Beirut

5.Ragheb Isfahani, Husayn ibn Mohammad; Mofradat Alfaz al-Quran; Beirut

6.Tabatabaee, Muhammad Husayn; Al-Mizan fi Tafsir Al-Quran; Qum

7. Tabarsi, Fazl ibn Hasan; Majma’ al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Quran; Tehran

8. Fakhr Razi, Muhammad ibn Umar; al-Tafsir Al-Kabir; Beirut

9.Firuzabadi, Muhammad ibn Yaqub; Qamus al-Muhit; Beirut

10. Al-Kordi, Ammar; Al-Insan val Rezgh; Damascus

11. Kalbasi Haeri, Muhammad; Al-Se’a val Rezgh; Beirut

12.Mottaghi Hendi, Ali ibn Hesamuddin; Kanzul Ummal fi Sunan al-Aghwal val Afa’al; Beirut

13.Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Taghi; Biharul Anwar; Beirut


Last Updated on Saturday, 22 December 2018 23:36